Discourse on (Cartesian) Method: Kurt Smith “Provides an Understanding” of René Descartes’ Philosophy

French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650) is famous for his phrase, “I think therefore I am,” which defines the main principle of his philosophy and is still often quoted today. Professor of Philosophy at Bloomsburg University, Kurt Smith is the author of Simply Descartes (2018), which details a philosophical system that emerged in […]

Peter Duesberg on Why Robert Koch’s Postulates are Germane to Infectious Diseases

German physician and microbiologist, Robert Koch (1843–1910) is considered the founder of modern bacteriology. He identified the causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax, supporting the concept of infectious diseases. Peter Duesberg is a professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. He has challenged the virus-AIDS hypothesis in various medical […]

Kevin J. Hayes on Edgar Allan Poe: “Originality was his watchword”

An American essayist, editor, literary critic, and short story writer, Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849) is best known for his dark poems, such as “The Raven” and “Annabel Lee,” among many others. Kevin J. Hayes is a historian and author of several books about American literary figures. He is also the winner of the 2018 George […]

Because She Could Not Stop Writing: Wendy Martin on Emily Dickinson’s Body of Work and “Life Full of Love and Joy”

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) was an American poet who wrote nearly 1,800 poems, most of which were published posthumously. She composed her works in short, compact phrases, using a unique writing style, particularly capitalization and dashes. Author of The Cambridge Introduction to Emily Dickinson and All Things Dickinson, Wendy Martin is a professor of American literature and American studies […]

“The Beginning of the End”: Scott Donaldson on Why the Bell Tolled for Ernest Hemingway’s First Marriage

Nobel Prize-winning American novelist, short story writer, journalist, and adventurer Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961) was one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. His sparse, understated writing style influenced generations of later writers. Scott Donaldson is one of America’s leading literary biographers who authored eight books about 20th-century American writers, including Ernest Hemingway. He […]

On The Same Page with Jane Austen: Helena Kelly Sets the Record Straight About the English Novelist

Though relatively unknown during her lifetime, Jane Austen (1775–1817), is among the most widely read novelists in English literature. Her literary classics, such as Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility, bridge the gap between romance and realism. Helena Kelly holds degrees in Classics and English from Oxford and King’s College, London. She teaches Austen at an Oxford summer school, and for […]

A Connecticut Yankee: R. Kent Rasmussen On Why Mark Twain Was “The First Truly American Writer”

If he had only written “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” and “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,” Mark Twain would still be an American icon and a novelist to be reckoned with. Yet Twain was also a best-selling travel writer, essayist, social critic and skeptic whose wide diversity of interests and exceptional powers of observation informed everything he wrote.

Killing Time: Julian Barbour Explains his “Timeless-view” of the Universe

Considered to be the most influential physicist of the 20th century, Albert Einstein (1879–1955) developed the theory of relativity and laid foundations for modern quantum mechanics.

Mama’s Boy: Joel Whitebook on Sigmund Freud’s Enduring Influence

Although some of his theories are still hotly debated, Sigmund Freud, (May 6, 1856–September 23, 1939) is widely regarded as a trailblazer in the realm of psychiatry and psychology. The Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist, who was allegedly the first to offer a comprehensive explanation of how human behavior is determined by the conscious and unconscious forces, is regarded as the founder of psychoanalysis.

On Logic, Language and Numbers: Sanford Shieh Discusses Gottlob Frege’s Enduring Mathematical Legacy

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician responsible for the development